Colonizations and explorations

If you wnat to know about conquistadors first you have to know aboout colonizations and explorations of America. I think you have heard abou it but I think it's better to help you with some pieces of information we are going to give you now.

Well first, what is colonization?

Colonization was a process wich taked a lot of time. Europeans went to new territories wich did not appear in any maps discovering new lands and cities wich changed their point of view respect the wolrd between the 16th and the 20th century. The first two countries that started to colonize America were Spain and Portugal but later more countries as Britain, France and Holand followed their steps and started their own colonizations. What do you think was the main reason to this colonization? Of course, money. This was the main reason. Another reasons were that they wanted some products they did not have in their countries or they wanted to open new trading routes. The posesion of new territories was also an important reason because this make the country wich had this territories stronger in politics.

Now, you already kwnow what colonization is, but we have to be more accurate in the topic and talk about another thing, Spanish colonization. Do you want to know about it? Continue reading(:
external image 400px-Colonizationoftheamericas.png

1.1 Spanish colonization

Now that you know about colonizations, it will be easy to explain spanish colonization. The first settlement was in an island 'La Española'. After this, the colonization of Central America started. Hernán Cortés with his soldiers conquered the the aztec empire. When the aztecs and the imperio mayaMaya empire were destroyed in Central America, the colones founded The vicerroyalty of New Spain the 12th of October of 1453. It involved Central America, Mexico and the south part of what is now EEUU. So, what do you think that happened now? The same as in Central America, the colonization of South Ameriza started.

This is the Vicerroyalty of New Spain

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The Inca Empire was destroyed and the incas were sommited to a lot of hard works. Now three more vicerroyaltys were created, Vicerroyalty of Peru, Vicerroyalty of New Granaday El Vicerroyalty of Rio de La Plata. Spanish domination in this territories was extended until the beggining oh the 19th cnetury. During 300 years, America a rich territory with a lot of natural sources became provider of important metals and raw materials to Spain and the rest of Europe. Altough the first objective in America was the evangelization of the natives, the colones somited them to a lot of abuses, harassment and humitations. That is why all the population had to work to stablish the demand of metals and raw materials. So, the natives were abused.

This is the Vicerroyalty of Peru

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This is the Vicerroyalty of New Granada

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This is the Vicerroyalty River Plate

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What do you think that the indians did? They attemped several rebelions against the colones. Some rebelions as Tupac Amarú y Tupac Katari .
This rebelions brought some uprisins for independence. Now you know about Spanish colonization.

The following video is about the conquest of The Aztec Empire by Hernán Cortés.

The following video is about the Spanish colonization of the Inca Empire.

2. Who were the conquistadors?

There were many conquistadors, but the most important were Hernán Cortés , Francisco Orellana , Francisco Pizarro , Cabeza de Vaca .
They were Spanish soldiers and explorers that after the discovered of America by Christopher Colombus in 1492, that went to the New World to conquer new territories. They had to pay for his weapons and horses because their governements did not support them. Only one conquistador, Hernan Cortes was supported by his country, Spain. The conquest lasted until the 19th century. In 1573, Felipe II made a degree where the Spanish conquest was forbbiden. After that, the conquering acts were going to be determined as pacifist acts.

3. How were the conquistadors?

The conquistadors were modern men that changed the events that happened. They were from Andalucia, Castile and Extreadura. Normally, they were nobles, crafstmen, peasants or merchants.
Most of the colonization was based on war, but most of the conquistadors were not soldiers or did not have expirience on war.
The acts they made in America were motived by three things: the steem for gold, glory and the spread of Christianity.
In that moments, those acts were normal things that happened in Europe. Now, in most of the cases they violate the human rights.

4. What did conquistadors look for in America?

Most of the conquistadors went to America looking for prestige, gold ( because indians did not considere gold as something important), new territories (as most of the lands were not conquered), power and wealth.

5. How conquistadors conquered America?

Conquistadors conquered native empires thanks to two reasons:

Militar 5.1:

external image armaduras_espanolas.jpgSpanish conquistadors had new technological advances, as fire and steel arms, that indians did not knew. Horses were also important because natives did not know about their existance, so they were afraid of them. So, conquistadors attacked and were more quicklier than them.
Indians knew how to work metals but only two cultures, quechuas and Púrchépecha used them as weapons. The other civilizations used metals to make religious and artistica things. So, they only used wood, flint and obsidian weapons. Also conquistadors used ennemity between civilizations to create alliances and good armies as the one with wich Hernán Cortés attacked Tenochtitlan (capital of the Aztec Empire) it was made of 200.000 soldiers, of wich fewer than 1% were Spanish.
In some cultures, it was believed that new people of foreing worlds would come to their territories, so when they saw this new people they considered them as divinities.

5.1 Diseases

When Europeans arrived to America a lot of new diseases attacked to the native population. The 95% of the indian population died in the first 130 years because of the lack of inmunity to this new diseases. This created a collapse in some civilizations. In the Inca Empirean epidemic of Viruela killed most of the population and the emperor Huayna Cápac in 1529. Because of that in 1533 Francisco Pizarro defetaed the Inca Empire.
Here you can see our Glogster. Each Glogster tell us about the conquitadors we have studied. We hope that our information would help you.
Hernán Cortés
Cabeza de Vaca
Francisco de Orellana
Francisco Pizarro
The conquistadors

This is our Glogster about the Conquistadors, click here to see it bigger.